While TB incidence has declined in recent years, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is rising. Risk factors influencing the spread of TB in Kazakhstan are yet undetermined. This project, funded by the Kazakhstan Ministry of Education and Science and The Center of Life Sciences at Nazerbayev University, aims to uncover which risk factors are fueling the epidemic and, in particular, the startling rates of MDR-TB. The information collected from four oblasts will offer insight into how to reduce the disease burden of TB in Kazakhstan.
Risk factors influencing the spread of TB in Kazakhstan are yet undetermined. This project aims to uncover which risk factors are fueling the epidemic
1800 participants will be included, with 600 index participants and 1200 controls, including an internal household control (index participant’s household contact) and an external community control (non-household control). Index participants with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB will be recruited from 4 regions of Kazakhstan and followed-up for 12 months. A case-control study of TB-positive individuals will be complemented by both a household cohort study and a genetic, family-based sub-study of risk determinants. In addition, genotyping of M.Tuberculosis strains and their susceptibility to anti-TB drugs will form the last component of the study. Data will be mapped in GIS to reveal the distribution of cases and strain types across the regions. Separate statistical analysis will be conducted for the case-control, prospective cohort, molecular epidemiology, and family genetic components of the study.