B.A., Yale, 1973; J.D., 1976. Law clerk to Judge Jon O. Newman, 1976-77. Served in the Office of the Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State, through 1980, with responsibilities including European and Canadian affairs, international antitrust, aviation, and trade; was special assistant to the legal adviser in 1980. Associate, Sullivan & Cromwell, 1981-84. Joined the Columbia faculty in 1984.
Publications include The International Court of Justice at a Crossroads (ed., 1987); Law and Force in the New International Order (ed., 1991); Enforcing Restraint: Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts (ed., 1993); Beyond Confrontation: International Law for the Post-Cold War Era (ed. 1995); Enforcing International Law through Non-Forcible Measures (Hague Academy of International Law, 1997); and International Law: Cases and Materials (4th ed., with Henkin, Pugh, Schachter and Smit, 2001).
Resident fellow, U.S. Institute of Peace (1995-96). Member, Council on Foreign Relations; Department of State Advisory Committee on International Law; and numerous international law and human rights organizations. Organizer of U.S.-Soviet (later U.S.-Russian) research project on international law for the American Society of International Law (A.S.I.L.). Vice president of A.S.I.L., 1996-98, and counselor of A.S.I.L. since 2001. Member of the board of editors of the American Journal of International Law since 1990. Co-editor-in-chief, American Journal of International Law, since 2003.
Principal areas of interest are public international law and the U.S. law of foreign relations.